Perceived Peer Alcohol Use

Geographic Area:

All Counties (customize)

See this topic by Grade, Race, and Gender

Years

to

Display By

Grade

Gender

Percent of Students Reporting They Think Most Students in Their School Drink Alcohol Monthly or More Often, All Available Years: by Grade, Gender, and County

20132016
FemaleMaleTotalFemaleMaleTotal
Minnesota11th82.4%71.8%77.2%77.1%64.4%70.8%
8th32.9%23.2%28.2%25.6%17.3%21.5%
9th63.9%50.1%57.1%57.7%42.3%50.1%
All Grades58.6%47.2%53.0%51.7%39.6%45.7%
Aitkin County11th78.0%81.8%79.8%79.2%60.4%69.3%
8th38.3%34.2%36.1%27.3%21.7%24.4%
9th64.6%52.5%58.9%75.9%50.0%64.4%
All Grades59.4%52.3%55.8%68.8%49.2%59.2%
Anoka County11th84.3%77.4%81.0%78.0%66.2%72.0%
8th35.3%27.3%31.3%22.4%14.5%18.7%
9th72.2%54.9%64.0%63.1%49.5%56.5%
All Grades60.5%48.7%54.7%52.2%42.3%47.4%
Becker County11th62.5%67.1%64.9%81.5%61.3%71.2%
8th31.4%14.0%22.6%42.7%23.1%33.0%
9th71.3%38.5%54.1%58.6%41.5%50.4%
All Grades53.0%37.5%45.0%60.7%42.1%51.5%
Beltrami County11th86.8%72.1%79.5%86.8%60.1%72.8%
8th37.0%23.2%30.2%34.1%27.6%30.9%
9th67.0%56.7%61.7%71.3%48.0%58.9%
All Grades62.2%49.5%55.8%60.9%44.2%52.4%
Benton County11th74.3%72.9%73.7%75.6%57.8%67.8%
8th24.2%19.6%22.3%30.2%22.9%26.7%
9th53.0%43.0%48.0%61.3%42.0%51.3%
All Grades49.6%45.2%47.6%53.3%38.2%45.9%
Big Stone County11th81.8%83.3%82.7%***
8th63.3%31.8%50.0%***
9th80.0%63.6%71.4%***
All Grades75.3%64.9%70.0%***
Blue Earth County11th80.3%65.4%73.7%72.0%61.7%66.7%
8th19.8%10.2%15.0%31.7%14.8%23.2%
9th57.6%39.0%48.0%56.8%36.9%46.9%
All Grades50.7%34.8%42.9%52.8%37.1%44.9%
Brown County11th80.7%80.6%80.7%82.6%67.4%75.0%
8th58.8%47.1%52.9%38.2%24.8%31.3%
9th72.7%58.1%65.9%76.1%62.5%69.0%
All Grades70.1%61.5%65.8%65.0%50.8%57.7%
Carlton County11th87.5%69.1%78.4%81.3%72.0%76.8%
8th43.3%33.1%38.3%36.6%19.8%28.2%
9th71.6%56.6%64.5%59.3%44.3%51.7%
All Grades66.4%52.2%59.5%57.8%43.3%50.5%
Carver County11th85.8%69.7%77.7%82.1%67.9%74.6%
8th16.1%15.7%15.9%28.5%10.3%19.8%
9th72.6%59.9%66.6%65.7%43.8%55.0%
All Grades59.4%48.8%54.2%53.2%36.1%44.8%
Cass County11th75.8%71.6%73.7%88.3%78.5%83.3%
8th61.2%38.9%49.4%41.1%29.0%34.7%
9th67.0%55.3%61.3%61.7%47.9%54.8%
All Grades67.4%53.4%60.3%60.8%48.1%54.3%
Chippewa County11thN/AN/AN/A***
8thN/AN/AN/A***
9thN/AN/AN/A***
All GradesN/AN/AN/A***
Chisago County11th83.4%73.5%78.6%***
8th40.7%28.3%35.0%***
9th71.4%55.8%63.5%***
All Grades63.0%51.4%57.4%***
Clay County11th88.3%70.5%80.1%80.2%62.1%70.6%
8th31.9%23.7%27.7%17.6%14.1%15.9%
9th62.9%40.6%51.6%48.6%41.9%45.0%
All Grades59.6%42.3%51.1%45.6%38.8%42.1%
Clearwater County11th84.0%68.2%76.6%75.0%76.5%75.8%
8th50.0%30.0%40.7%42.9%24.3%34.2%
9th53.8%49.0%51.1%61.9%30.6%43.3%
All Grades59.1%46.0%52.5%58.6%40.6%49.0%
Cook County11th90.0%68.8%76.9%***
8th27.8%7.7%19.4%***
9th61.9%72.2%66.7%***
All Grades55.1%53.2%54.2%***
Cottonwood County11th60.0%44.1%50.0%72.1%52.0%61.3%
8th20.5%10.9%15.6%29.5%25.0%27.2%
9th42.5%44.9%43.8%52.2%40.8%46.3%
All Grades39.5%34.4%36.6%51.1%39.5%45.0%
Crow Wing County11th87.3%84.8%86.0%***
8th50.0%37.5%43.9%***
9th66.7%52.7%60.0%***
All Grades65.0%55.5%60.4%***
Dakota County11th82.2%70.8%76.5%77.8%62.4%70.1%
8th26.5%17.9%22.3%20.3%13.5%16.9%
9th60.4%48.0%54.3%54.1%39.3%46.9%
All Grades55.4%44.7%50.1%49.1%36.9%43.0%
Dodge County11th77.3%73.0%75.3%73.7%60.6%68.1%
8th23.9%16.2%20.4%35.1%16.8%26.2%
9th52.5%47.5%50.2%59.5%44.7%52.5%
All Grades48.6%43.8%46.4%55.2%38.4%47.4%
Douglas County11th86.7%74.0%81.3%77.2%72.3%74.6%
8th33.1%30.7%31.9%23.2%22.2%22.7%
9th56.6%41.9%48.6%59.2%53.7%56.5%
All Grades59.2%47.2%53.4%50.8%48.8%49.8%
Faribault County11th85.4%83.3%84.3%85.2%78.6%81.8%
8th26.5%23.8%25.0%31.1%18.2%24.0%
9th70.0%57.1%63.9%51.2%48.1%49.5%
All Grades61.7%54.3%57.8%57.7%48.5%52.8%
Fillmore County11th84.8%68.3%75.2%89.1%78.7%84.0%
8th29.3%20.6%25.2%38.7%29.9%34.1%
9th59.3%43.6%51.4%66.2%36.9%52.2%
All Grades53.1%43.5%48.2%65.0%47.7%56.4%
Freeborn County11th80.4%76.4%78.0%77.3%64.2%71.0%
8th47.5%28.1%37.4%48.7%25.7%37.6%
9th72.5%57.6%66.7%71.3%48.0%58.9%
All Grades67.2%54.9%61.1%64.2%44.4%54.4%
Goodhue County11th77.0%68.3%72.3%71.9%66.7%69.8%
8th41.2%30.7%36.5%54.5%30.6%42.6%
9th55.7%43.8%49.6%65.0%50.9%57.6%
All Grades55.7%47.7%51.7%63.8%47.0%55.8%
Grant County11th70.0%52.0%61.8%71.4%61.1%64.9%
8th56.0%14.7%32.2%42.9%31.0%38.0%
9th57.1%50.0%54.1%61.3%33.3%46.9%
All Grades61.1%36.5%49.1%55.3%42.9%49.0%
Hennepin County11th82.6%72.3%77.6%72.1%61.5%67.0%
8th24.9%18.0%21.5%16.8%11.6%14.2%
9th58.9%46.3%52.8%49.3%34.0%41.8%
All Grades53.9%43.9%49.0%42.4%32.2%37.4%
Houston County11th82.5%69.6%75.5%81.3%73.8%78.0%
8th28.0%28.6%28.3%19.8%12.0%16.1%
9th59.6%40.5%50.6%58.8%34.3%44.7%
All Grades58.2%49.8%54.1%52.4%37.3%44.9%
Hubbard County11th82.5%55.2%68.5%71.8%71.0%71.4%
8th34.5%21.3%29.0%37.3%24.2%31.4%
9th51.5%56.5%53.6%65.5%60.6%63.4%
All Grades54.0%43.7%49.4%58.4%52.8%55.8%
Isanti County11th86.5%76.4%82.1%84.4%79.7%82.1%
8th49.8%38.0%44.1%23.9%22.5%23.2%
9th70.6%65.8%68.2%62.0%55.8%59.0%
All Grades64.5%54.8%59.9%55.4%50.9%53.2%
Itasca County11th84.7%69.2%77.8%80.9%77.8%79.2%
8th28.0%23.8%25.9%47.3%30.2%38.5%
9th68.6%63.6%66.1%73.7%56.6%65.7%
All Grades58.4%50.1%54.4%66.2%53.2%59.6%
Jackson County11th92.6%85.2%88.9%87.2%67.9%79.1%
8th28.3%25.6%27.1%33.3%22.2%27.3%
9th68.2%40.0%52.5%68.2%32.5%51.2%
All Grades62.9%52.0%57.4%70.4%41.9%57.1%
Kanabec County11th77.6%76.9%77.2%84.5%68.1%75.4%
8th48.8%30.4%39.8%38.6%39.1%38.8%
9th52.2%55.9%53.9%68.6%39.7%53.4%
All Grades57.0%52.7%54.8%60.6%49.1%54.9%
Kandiyohi County11th76.8%64.2%69.7%67.3%61.9%64.3%
8th26.0%21.7%23.6%26.9%22.8%24.8%
9th50.9%38.5%44.8%57.7%40.5%48.8%
All Grades50.8%41.8%46.0%48.9%40.9%44.7%
Kittson County11th63.2%57.9%60.5%64.3%52.6%59.6%
8th31.8%28.6%30.2%52.4%40.0%46.3%
9th56.7%48.1%52.6%83.3%62.5%73.5%
All Grades50.7%44.8%47.8%65.7%50.9%59.0%
Koochiching County11th95.5%89.7%92.2%***
8th75.6%63.6%70.5%***
9th94.1%68.8%81.8%***
All Grades86.1%73.4%80.0%***
Lac Qui Parle County11th73.5%60.7%67.7%71.9%72.2%72.1%
8th50.0%24.2%37.7%28.8%20.8%25.2%
9th64.7%40.0%51.4%51.4%30.6%41.1%
All Grades62.5%40.6%51.7%46.1%39.2%42.7%
Lake County11th100.0%83.8%89.5%***
8th66.7%48.4%58.2%***
9th82.5%62.1%75.6%***
All Grades80.5%66.0%73.8%***
Lake of the Woods County11th81.3%75.0%78.6%***
8th70.0%47.1%55.6%***
9th91.7%87.5%90.0%***
All Grades81.6%64.9%73.3%***
Le Sueur County11th90.3%86.4%88.2%87.9%79.5%84.3%
8th23.9%15.6%20.4%22.4%8.3%14.6%
9th75.4%56.0%65.8%73.5%46.4%59.5%
All Grades62.2%56.8%59.6%61.3%39.2%50.1%
Lincoln County11th95.7%94.7%95.2%***
8th34.8%25.0%31.4%***
9th80.0%66.7%71.8%***
All Grades68.9%67.3%68.1%***
Lyon County11th78.1%67.8%73.1%79.6%61.2%71.0%
8th34.8%17.9%24.8%37.4%26.2%31.4%
9th62.3%60.2%61.2%55.4%54.8%55.1%
All Grades61.2%49.2%54.9%55.8%45.2%50.4%
McLeod County11th91.7%92.9%92.3%***
8th66.7%36.4%55.2%***
9th66.7%28.6%50.0%***
All Grades74.4%59.4%67.6%***
Mahnomen County11th100.0%85.0%93.2%78.9%72.4%75.0%
8th70.4%52.2%62.0%68.0%47.4%55.6%
9th89.3%68.4%77.3%77.4%72.7%75.0%
All Grades86.1%67.9%76.9%74.7%63.0%68.0%
Marshall County11th71.4%61.2%65.9%82.1%66.7%73.4%
8th58.3%36.8%47.3%12.1%16.3%14.5%
9th61.5%50.0%56.4%50.0%15.2%34.2%
All Grades63.8%50.4%57.1%46.5%32.1%39.0%
Martin County11th83.3%56.7%71.0%***
8th45.1%40.3%42.9%***
9th60.0%38.3%48.5%***
All Grades63.1%44.1%53.8%***
Meeker County11th63.3%50.0%56.3%55.1%53.6%54.4%
8th33.3%17.7%25.5%28.2%21.5%25.0%
9th54.0%38.3%45.6%52.9%36.6%44.4%
All Grades47.0%32.6%39.5%43.8%35.1%39.5%
Mille Lacs County11th91.8%78.0%85.1%74.5%66.2%70.4%
8th35.7%32.1%33.9%30.4%25.2%27.6%
9th70.2%60.1%65.0%66.3%59.6%63.2%
All Grades64.6%55.0%59.8%55.6%46.7%51.1%
Morrison County11th86.9%73.6%80.5%72.1%61.7%67.3%
8th47.1%33.7%40.4%33.9%26.0%30.1%
9th65.7%52.0%58.7%58.5%38.6%48.0%
All Grades64.7%50.9%57.8%54.8%41.3%48.2%
Mower County11th87.1%70.1%77.6%80.0%55.5%67.4%
8th42.6%40.1%41.4%31.4%26.4%28.8%
9th65.5%47.7%56.8%61.3%45.9%53.4%
All Grades61.0%51.2%56.0%54.9%40.9%47.7%
Murray County11th91.9%78.6%86.2%75.7%61.1%68.5%
8th43.6%22.6%34.3%46.3%26.7%38.0%
9th58.8%51.4%55.1%69.7%47.6%57.3%
All Grades64.5%50.0%57.8%63.1%46.3%54.8%
Nicollet County11th81.6%74.5%77.9%***
8th38.2%19.6%29.7%***
9th47.3%33.9%40.2%***
All Grades54.7%43.6%49.1%***
Nobles County11th72.4%63.6%68.3%71.6%59.7%66.0%
8th38.1%19.6%29.1%22.5%10.8%17.2%
9th65.3%45.5%55.7%45.3%33.7%38.8%
All Grades57.5%40.8%49.5%43.8%32.7%38.3%
Norman County11th73.3%60.0%66.7%75.0%52.2%64.7%
8th29.7%23.3%26.9%37.8%37.7%37.8%
9th48.7%44.4%46.7%62.1%43.3%52.5%
All Grades49.1%42.7%46.0%54.9%42.5%48.6%
Olmsted County11th85.4%65.9%74.3%68.9%55.2%62.0%
8th33.9%22.7%27.9%21.9%14.0%18.1%
9th59.7%53.0%56.4%46.7%34.4%41.0%
All Grades52.9%41.5%46.8%42.8%32.1%37.7%
Otter Tail County11th78.5%58.5%68.3%72.9%57.5%65.2%
8th34.3%25.0%29.8%33.2%21.1%26.4%
9th61.8%41.2%51.8%62.7%40.6%51.7%
All Grades56.1%40.4%48.4%56.8%38.6%47.3%
Pennington County11th84.4%75.0%79.4%***
8th35.0%23.1%29.7%***
9th78.6%62.2%70.1%***
All Grades62.1%52.4%57.3%***
Pine County11th90.3%83.2%86.7%86.7%74.5%80.2%
8th61.8%32.8%46.0%50.4%36.4%43.5%
9th79.1%62.7%71.5%72.1%57.1%64.5%
All Grades77.2%58.4%67.8%67.8%54.7%61.1%
Pipestone County11th91.7%88.9%90.2%***
8th62.5%34.3%45.8%***
9th72.4%92.6%82.1%***
All Grades75.3%68.5%71.7%***
Polk County11th75.9%61.7%68.4%85.6%73.0%80.0%
8th48.7%32.3%41.3%32.3%23.9%28.1%
9th58.9%45.0%52.6%57.3%47.7%52.2%
All Grades60.6%47.3%54.3%57.3%45.7%51.5%
Pope County11th94.3%75.0%85.1%78.3%54.1%63.3%
8th46.9%35.0%40.3%34.4%31.0%32.4%
9th61.3%31.1%43.4%66.7%36.7%50.0%
All Grades68.4%44.4%55.3%57.0%40.4%47.3%
Ramsey County11th77.3%71.7%74.5%74.9%61.9%68.5%
8th31.8%22.6%27.4%22.3%13.7%18.1%
9th65.9%50.9%58.6%59.2%44.1%51.9%
All Grades59.4%49.9%54.8%52.2%39.8%46.2%
Red Lake County11th64.0%59.1%61.7%78.3%68.4%73.8%
8th50.0%30.0%40.9%25.0%9.5%17.8%
9th70.4%56.3%62.7%61.9%30.4%45.5%
All Grades61.8%50.0%56.0%54.4%34.9%45.0%
Redwood County11th89.1%74.1%80.8%74.0%65.5%69.4%
8th42.9%29.6%35.9%16.9%27.7%22.1%
9th70.6%64.4%67.3%46.9%36.7%41.9%
All Grades67.1%56.7%61.5%42.7%42.6%42.7%
Renville County11th83.9%58.3%72.7%64.5%50.0%59.0%
8th26.2%24.0%25.4%63.3%28.1%45.2%
9th52.8%27.3%40.6%53.8%28.2%42.9%
All Grades51.4%35.4%44.5%60.9%34.0%48.9%
Rice County11th69.2%61.2%65.3%71.8%53.2%63.1%
8th32.5%16.9%24.6%13.9%9.5%11.7%
9th59.9%42.8%51.0%52.3%31.5%42.2%
All Grades52.6%38.1%45.3%41.7%27.6%34.8%
Rock County11th91.2%63.2%76.4%***
8th45.2%20.0%32.9%***
9th48.6%40.0%44.3%***
All Grades60.4%40.7%50.4%***
Roseau County11th81.7%78.2%79.9%77.8%72.2%74.4%
8th51.1%38.0%42.9%51.9%32.5%42.0%
9th63.3%59.7%61.5%61.9%42.7%51.7%
All Grades67.0%58.5%62.4%61.7%48.0%54.2%
St. Louis County11th85.2%74.2%80.1%84.3%69.2%76.6%
8th48.6%33.1%41.0%45.5%26.1%35.9%
9th68.1%62.7%65.5%62.1%50.3%56.2%
All Grades66.6%55.5%61.3%63.1%48.2%55.6%
Scott County11th88.6%75.7%82.1%82.0%67.9%75.2%
8th38.3%26.2%32.4%19.6%13.7%16.6%
9th68.0%51.6%59.8%64.1%38.7%50.9%
All Grades63.6%50.3%57.0%53.5%37.8%45.6%
Sherburne County11th85.0%71.8%78.1%86.0%74.9%80.5%
8th28.2%17.6%22.6%35.1%20.2%27.4%
9th68.9%56.9%63.1%72.2%58.4%65.2%
All Grades59.5%46.6%52.9%60.9%46.6%53.6%
Sibley County11th94.2%79.6%87.1%81.4%44.2%65.7%
8th40.0%29.2%34.7%45.9%30.3%37.8%
9th77.8%51.7%63.1%46.3%39.1%43.0%
All Grades70.7%53.5%61.9%58.0%36.8%48.0%
Stearns County11th79.1%66.1%72.9%72.9%60.3%66.7%
8th35.4%24.7%30.2%28.2%19.7%24.0%
9th58.7%41.3%50.0%52.7%38.7%45.8%
All Grades58.6%44.6%51.8%49.3%37.6%43.5%
Steele County11th85.2%79.7%82.7%76.9%64.0%70.7%
8th54.0%40.7%47.8%42.4%34.1%38.3%
9th57.0%60.4%58.6%61.1%51.6%56.2%
All Grades64.6%58.4%61.7%60.1%49.8%55.0%
Stevens County11th65.2%29.4%50.0%80.5%56.3%69.9%
8th20.8%21.7%21.3%48.6%28.6%37.7%
9th51.5%38.8%43.9%64.7%45.2%53.9%
All Grades40.4%30.4%35.2%65.5%42.2%53.5%
Swift County11th80.0%67.6%72.6%***
8th36.1%8.8%22.9%***
9th70.4%46.2%58.5%***
All Grades59.1%41.2%49.7%***
Todd County11th80.5%67.9%75.4%68.5%51.0%59.5%
8th31.6%22.3%27.0%39.6%30.7%35.1%
9th61.9%56.1%59.5%54.0%35.0%43.9%
All Grades59.5%47.2%54.1%53.6%38.8%45.9%
Traverse County11th72.2%87.5%76.9%***
8th66.7%27.3%43.2%***
9th90.9%33.3%60.9%***
All Grades75.0%40.5%58.1%***
Wabasha County11th69.9%41.3%56.9%80.9%58.6%70.7%
8th29.0%11.1%21.0%35.0%25.0%29.8%
9th44.6%42.2%43.4%60.5%52.2%56.7%
All Grades50.9%33.0%42.7%58.4%43.6%51.4%
Wadena County11th78.6%63.3%71.5%70.9%57.6%65.2%
8th28.9%24.4%26.9%34.7%18.3%25.6%
9th43.5%39.1%41.6%45.3%34.9%40.6%
All Grades47.6%40.6%44.5%50.7%34.0%42.6%
Waseca County11th95.2%90.9%93.1%74.1%71.6%72.8%
8th37.5%34.2%35.9%38.7%36.8%37.9%
9th79.0%51.1%64.5%50.0%44.7%47.3%
All Grades70.9%58.5%64.7%53.3%50.8%52.1%
Washington County11th85.6%76.2%80.9%80.8%68.1%74.7%
8th31.6%23.8%27.8%26.4%18.8%22.5%
9th67.0%53.3%60.2%59.8%44.3%52.4%
All Grades60.2%50.1%55.2%54.7%41.6%48.3%
Watonwan County11th85.3%69.2%76.7%79.6%59.2%69.9%
8th43.8%29.0%38.0%41.2%39.1%40.0%
9th68.3%41.2%56.0%53.7%44.3%48.9%
All Grades63.4%48.1%56.4%58.1%46.3%51.9%
Wilkin County11th80.5%73.5%77.3%82.5%58.3%73.4%
8th27.5%6.9%18.8%18.2%11.1%14.5%
9th66.0%53.3%61.0%50.0%38.3%43.5%
All Grades58.6%46.2%53.4%52.3%33.6%43.1%
Winona County11th88.3%70.8%79.2%78.5%67.5%73.0%
8th34.9%18.3%26.3%25.2%17.9%21.6%
9th67.2%46.3%56.7%60.4%43.7%51.7%
All Grades62.3%43.7%52.8%54.7%43.3%48.9%
Wright County11th85.9%76.2%81.0%82.0%68.9%75.4%
8th23.6%16.3%20.1%13.2%9.7%11.5%
9th66.3%48.2%57.1%57.6%37.6%47.5%
All Grades56.7%45.8%51.3%48.8%37.4%43.1%
Yellow Medicine County11th73.3%68.3%70.9%68.8%63.6%66.2%
8th35.7%45.8%40.4%36.7%9.3%20.5%
9th56.8%27.9%41.3%60.5%39.5%49.4%
All Grades58.2%47.2%52.8%56.0%35.3%44.7%

About the Indicator:

When asked how often they think MOST STUDENTS at their school drink alcohol, 53% of Minnesota’s 8th, 9th, and 11th graders responded with monthly or more often. In reality, past month alcohol use was reported by 17% of students. Students who believe that most students do drink alcohol monthly or more often are over 6.5 times more likely to report they drink alcohol monthly or more often themselves, as compared to students who perceive that most students don’t drink monthly or more often.

Data Source: Minnesota Student Survey (MSS)

Description: The MSS is a confidential and anonymous self-administered survey given to students attending Minnesota public, charter and tribal schools. From 1995 to 2010, the survey was administered to students in 6th, 9th, and 12th grades. New in 2013, the survey was administered to students in 5th, 8th, 9th, and 11th grades. Trend data are now only available for 9th graders, and only for survey questions that did not change. Most schools elect to participate in the survey; in 2013, this included 84% of public schools in Minnesota.

Although the data are not presented here, the survey is also administered to area learning centers, juvenile correction facilities and private schools electing to participate.

Sponsored by: Minnesota Department of Education

Geographic Level: State, Region, and County

Aggregated data at the state and county level do not reveal disparities that may exist within a given geographic area.

Frequency: Data collected and reported every three years

Characteristics: The results of the MSS are also available at a county level. Data Privacy requirements mandate that data is presented in a manner such that no individual student can be identified through the presentation of the results. As part of the Data Privacy practices, the results are also presented in a manner that no individual school district could be identified through the results. Therefore, for counties that have only one school district, the results are not presented. Results are also withheld for counties in which the minimum number for student participation was not met.

The MSS is a “census” of schools, not a sample. The school districts get their own data. Fifth-graders were not asked all substance use questions. Some school districts do not participate, and student participation within the school district can vary widely. These data are self-reported.