Parent/Caregiver Incarceration

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Percent of Students Reporting a Parent or Guardian is Currently or Ever Has Been in Prison, All Available Years: by Grade, Gender, and County

20132016
FemaleMaleTotalFemaleMaleTotal
Minnesota11th14.7%13.9%14.3%15.5%14.6%15.0%
8th17.6%16.0%16.8%17.9%16.7%17.3%
9th17.6%15.7%16.7%17.2%15.7%16.4%
All Grades16.7%15.3%16.0%17.0%15.7%16.3%
Aitkin County11th28.6%29.2%28.8%18.8%21.8%20.4%
8th26.7%19.2%22.6%22.7%45.8%34.8%
9th34.3%25.4%30.2%36.2%28.3%32.7%
All Grades30.1%23.9%27.0%27.3%28.8%28.1%
Anoka County11th16.4%13.9%15.2%14.3%14.3%14.3%
8th16.6%14.6%15.6%18.4%15.3%16.9%
9th16.9%15.3%16.1%15.2%14.4%14.8%
All Grades16.6%14.7%15.7%16.1%14.7%15.4%
Becker County11th15.7%22.2%19.0%15.3%22.3%18.8%
8th24.3%22.7%23.5%23.7%23.5%23.6%
9th21.1%21.1%21.1%17.1%18.5%17.8%
All Grades20.4%21.9%21.2%18.7%21.4%20.1%
Beltrami County11th26.7%26.8%26.8%21.3%17.2%19.2%
8th34.7%29.4%32.1%30.6%38.5%34.4%
9th33.0%29.4%31.1%30.3%30.9%30.6%
All Grades31.7%28.7%30.2%28.0%29.6%28.8%
Benton County11th13.3%16.2%14.6%15.8%14.4%15.2%
8th18.2%23.7%20.5%20.3%24.9%22.5%
9th21.9%17.1%19.5%18.9%27.7%23.5%
All Grades18.1%18.8%18.4%18.7%24.0%21.3%
Big Stone County11th15.6%11.4%13.2%***
8th6.7%4.5%5.8%***
9th20.0%15.2%17.5%***
All Grades14.1%11.1%12.6%***
Blue Earth County11th13.1%12.8%13.0%14.8%13.7%14.2%
8th16.2%12.2%14.2%18.7%16.4%17.5%
9th24.4%14.7%19.4%19.4%13.7%16.6%
All Grades18.1%13.3%15.7%17.8%14.6%16.2%
Brown County11th19.8%17.6%18.7%19.5%15.3%17.4%
8th21.8%22.8%22.3%26.5%12.9%19.3%
9th15.7%20.2%17.9%23.6%20.3%21.9%
All Grades19.2%20.3%19.7%23.4%16.4%19.7%
Carlton County11th19.2%13.2%16.2%14.3%23.0%18.5%
8th16.4%18.5%17.4%26.6%23.2%24.9%
9th24.0%18.4%21.3%16.1%14.9%15.5%
All Grades19.9%16.8%18.4%19.3%20.2%19.8%
Carver County11th10.8%16.1%13.4%11.1%10.6%10.8%
8th9.7%13.2%11.5%13.2%16.7%14.9%
9th13.1%8.2%10.8%11.3%8.9%10.1%
All Grades11.3%12.3%11.8%12.1%12.4%12.2%
Cass County11th37.9%27.1%32.4%45.6%37.0%41.3%
8th50.6%29.6%39.6%38.1%35.2%36.6%
9th30.3%25.8%28.0%42.5%39.4%40.9%
All Grades39.8%27.6%33.5%41.7%37.3%39.4%
Chippewa County11thN/AN/AN/A***
8thN/AN/AN/A***
9thN/AN/AN/A***
All GradesN/AN/AN/A***
Chisago County11th19.6%16.1%17.9%***
8th17.9%17.5%17.7%***
9th21.3%24.0%22.7%***
All Grades19.6%19.5%19.5%***
Clay County11th18.6%11.1%15.1%16.4%13.9%15.0%
8th17.3%15.4%16.4%19.3%15.0%17.2%
9th18.0%12.0%15.0%21.8%15.8%18.6%
All Grades17.9%13.0%15.5%19.3%14.9%17.0%
Clearwater County11th20.0%40.0%29.1%46.9%38.9%42.6%
8th33.3%26.8%30.2%37.2%44.7%40.7%
9th21.6%24.1%23.1%23.3%37.5%31.8%
All Grades25.9%28.3%27.2%34.7%39.9%37.5%
Cook County11th10.0%25.0%19.2%***
8th21.1%15.4%18.8%***
9th27.3%23.8%25.6%***
All Grades21.6%22.0%21.8%***
Cottonwood County11th24.3%12.5%17.2%22.7%8.0%14.9%
8th23.3%15.1%18.8%25.0%26.5%25.8%
9th18.6%29.4%24.5%19.1%24.0%21.6%
All Grades22.0%18.8%20.1%22.2%19.5%20.8%
Crow Wing County11th16.7%26.1%21.5%***
8th22.4%17.3%20.0%***
9th18.2%16.9%17.6%***
All Grades19.5%19.7%19.6%***
Dakota County11th11.9%10.6%11.3%13.1%11.7%12.4%
8th14.8%13.8%14.3%13.3%13.8%13.5%
9th14.6%11.8%13.2%15.4%14.5%14.9%
All Grades13.8%12.1%13.0%14.0%13.4%13.7%
Dodge County11th10.6%16.0%13.1%13.3%10.8%12.2%
8th18.0%14.7%16.5%14.7%16.8%15.7%
9th13.1%16.1%14.6%9.8%14.8%12.2%
All Grades14.2%15.6%14.8%12.5%14.5%13.4%
Douglas County11th17.6%14.6%16.3%13.3%15.1%14.2%
8th15.5%20.7%17.9%14.0%18.8%16.4%
9th15.8%13.0%14.3%14.2%11.2%12.7%
All Grades16.4%16.1%16.2%13.9%15.0%14.5%
Faribault County11th13.7%20.0%17.2%32.7%20.7%26.5%
8th26.9%21.3%23.9%23.9%17.9%20.6%
9th29.2%11.9%20.9%17.8%27.1%23.1%
All Grades24.0%17.6%20.7%25.3%22.0%23.5%
Fillmore County11th8.7%6.3%7.3%14.1%17.7%15.9%
8th13.5%18.8%16.1%28.1%25.7%26.9%
9th10.9%12.7%11.8%15.3%26.2%20.4%
All Grades11.4%12.8%12.2%19.0%23.4%21.2%
Freeborn County11th20.6%14.1%17.0%18.4%20.7%19.5%
8th14.7%21.9%18.2%23.3%23.4%23.3%
9th22.5%17.3%20.3%25.0%27.5%26.3%
All Grades19.7%17.5%18.7%22.4%24.1%23.2%
Goodhue County11th9.7%13.4%11.7%13.1%13.3%13.2%
8th15.3%12.1%13.8%23.8%21.8%22.8%
9th14.2%10.7%12.4%25.5%16.8%20.9%
All Grades13.3%12.2%12.7%20.6%17.8%19.3%
Grant County11th6.5%3.7%5.2%19.0%30.6%26.3%
8th20.8%22.2%21.7%18.6%20.7%19.4%
9th28.6%11.1%21.0%19.4%14.3%16.7%
All Grades18.9%13.3%16.1%18.9%22.0%20.5%
Hennepin County11th11.3%10.6%10.9%12.4%11.4%11.9%
8th13.6%11.9%12.8%14.4%12.9%13.7%
9th13.8%12.6%13.2%12.6%11.3%12.0%
All Grades13.0%11.7%12.4%13.3%12.0%12.6%
Houston County11th15.5%10.8%12.9%25.0%19.4%22.5%
8th24.1%19.2%21.8%11.5%13.2%12.3%
9th9.4%14.6%11.9%20.7%16.3%18.3%
All Grades16.1%14.3%15.2%18.9%16.1%17.5%
Hubbard County11th24.6%22.2%23.4%23.6%19.7%21.7%
8th29.5%23.1%26.8%29.9%26.6%28.4%
9th31.9%20.4%27.0%28.4%22.9%25.9%
All Grades28.9%22.0%25.7%27.4%22.9%25.3%
Isanti County11th21.9%26.2%23.8%31.4%26.5%29.0%
8th35.3%27.2%31.4%32.6%29.1%30.9%
9th33.5%30.1%31.8%31.8%38.5%35.1%
All Grades31.7%28.1%30.0%32.0%31.6%31.8%
Itasca County11th27.2%20.8%24.3%24.1%29.0%26.9%
8th23.2%22.1%22.6%26.3%28.3%27.3%
9th24.4%21.8%23.1%29.8%20.7%25.4%
All Grades24.7%21.7%23.2%27.2%25.8%26.5%
Jackson County11th15.1%16.7%15.9%20.5%23.3%21.7%
8th11.3%20.0%15.3%26.7%25.0%25.7%
9th17.8%19.0%18.4%34.1%20.9%27.6%
All Grades14.6%18.5%16.6%27.6%22.6%25.1%
Kanabec County11th30.6%32.8%31.9%27.6%27.8%27.7%
8th34.1%25.3%29.8%27.0%23.1%25.3%
9th23.5%40.7%31.5%33.8%19.0%26.0%
All Grades29.6%32.2%30.9%29.4%23.1%26.3%
Kandiyohi County11th12.0%10.9%11.4%14.9%14.5%14.7%
8th15.0%19.7%17.5%17.9%16.1%17.0%
9th13.4%16.1%14.8%21.1%16.0%18.5%
All Grades13.5%15.5%14.6%18.3%15.6%16.9%
Kittson County11th11.0%9.1%9.8%21.4%5.3%14.9%
8th0.0%9.5%4.5%9.5%5.0%7.3%
9th32.0%11.5%22.8%16.7%0.0%8.8%
All Grades16.0%10.1%13.4%16.4%3.6%10.7%
Koochiching County11th26.1%17.2%21.2%***
8th32.6%15.2%25.0%***
9th21.2%9.4%15.4%***
All Grades27.3%13.8%20.7%***
Lac Qui Parle County11th5.7%17.9%11.1%21.9%8.3%14.7%
8th21.1%8.6%15.1%21.1%25.0%22.9%
9th32.4%15.2%22.9%16.2%8.3%12.3%
All Grades20.0%13.8%16.9%19.8%15.0%17.5%
Lake County11th35.0%36.8%36.2%***
8th16.7%18.9%17.8%***
9th22.6%11.4%18.6%***
All Grades22.9%22.7%22.8%***
Lake of the Woods County11th17.6%38.5%26.7%***
8th27.3%26.7%26.9%***
9th16.7%27.3%21.7%***
All Grades20.0%30.8%25.3%***
Le Sueur County11th18.0%16.5%17.2%21.0%15.6%18.6%
8th17.1%17.7%17.4%25.0%11.8%17.7%
9th17.2%13.0%15.1%26.7%19.4%22.8%
All Grades17.4%15.5%16.4%24.2%15.5%19.8%
Lincoln County11th17.4%26.3%21.4%***
8th29.2%18.2%25.7%***
9th26.7%16.7%20.5%***
All Grades24.2%20.4%22.4%***
Lyon County11th8.4%15.4%11.8%15.0%14.4%14.7%
8th18.2%16.8%17.4%23.1%15.4%19.0%
9th9.7%14.2%12.0%20.0%12.1%16.0%
All Grades11.3%15.4%13.4%19.7%13.9%16.8%
McLeod County11th27.3%14.3%20.0%***
8th31.6%45.5%36.7%***
9th36.4%55.6%45.0%***
All Grades31.7%35.3%33.3%***
Mahnomen County11th29.2%40.9%34.8%57.9%44.8%50.0%
8th51.6%42.9%47.5%60.0%63.2%61.9%
9th36.7%31.7%33.8%54.8%37.1%45.5%
All Grades40.0%37.4%38.6%57.3%49.0%52.5%
Marshall County11th25.6%17.3%21.1%14.3%16.7%15.6%
8th8.3%20.0%14.1%21.2%16.3%18.4%
9th21.8%12.2%17.7%15.0%18.8%16.7%
All Grades19.4%16.4%17.9%16.8%17.1%17.0%
Martin County11th21.3%17.8%19.6%***
8th19.0%18.6%18.8%***
9th22.5%12.4%17.2%***
All Grades21.1%15.6%18.4%***
Meeker County11th13.3%19.4%16.5%21.3%17.8%19.6%
8th15.6%18.5%17.1%16.0%18.4%17.2%
9th21.0%21.7%21.4%31.1%12.1%21.0%
All Grades17.0%19.9%18.5%22.5%15.8%19.2%
Mille Lacs County11th24.6%20.7%22.7%25.0%25.0%25.0%
8th21.8%28.2%25.1%26.7%22.5%24.4%
9th28.1%23.9%25.9%27.2%27.9%27.5%
All Grades24.8%24.5%24.7%26.4%24.8%25.6%
Morrison County11th16.0%17.1%16.5%17.6%17.9%17.8%
8th19.2%17.1%18.2%26.7%17.1%22.1%
9th21.5%20.3%20.9%23.0%18.8%20.8%
All Grades19.2%18.3%18.7%22.5%18.0%20.3%
Mower County11th15.8%18.9%17.5%19.6%24.2%22.0%
8th28.3%31.2%29.7%24.8%22.5%23.6%
9th22.3%20.9%21.6%19.0%24.4%21.8%
All Grades23.0%24.3%23.6%21.3%23.7%22.5%
Murray County11th15.8%0.0%9.0%13.5%8.1%10.8%
8th12.8%12.5%12.7%17.1%12.9%15.3%
9th8.8%11.4%10.1%8.6%20.0%14.7%
All Grades12.6%8.3%10.6%13.3%13.9%13.6%
Nicollet County11th14.3%11.1%12.6%***
8th21.1%10.2%16.0%***
9th16.4%3.2%9.4%***
All Grades17.4%7.9%12.6%***
Nobles County11th3.4%20.0%11.3%16.7%18.4%17.5%
8th19.8%24.1%21.9%26.8%18.3%22.9%
9th13.8%21.6%17.6%22.4%12.4%16.6%
All Grades13.0%22.1%17.4%22.4%16.1%19.2%
Norman County11th30.0%10.3%20.3%37.0%34.8%36.0%
8th39.5%20.7%31.3%25.0%28.3%26.8%
9th23.7%16.7%20.3%19.4%29.0%24.2%
All Grades31.1%16.0%24.0%26.5%29.9%28.2%
Olmsted County11th25.3%8.5%15.8%11.3%10.1%10.7%
8th14.6%12.4%13.4%16.4%17.4%16.9%
9th13.2%19.2%16.2%15.0%14.2%14.6%
All Grades16.4%13.4%14.8%14.6%14.4%14.5%
Otter Tail County11th15.0%13.7%14.4%21.2%18.5%19.9%
8th19.2%19.0%19.1%23.3%20.1%21.5%
9th21.1%20.8%20.9%21.9%12.9%17.4%
All Grades18.7%18.2%18.4%22.1%17.3%19.6%
Pennington County11th17.4%24.0%20.8%***
8th19.8%20.5%20.1%***
9th24.3%24.7%24.5%***
All Grades20.8%23.0%21.9%***
Pine County11th24.3%31.5%28.0%38.6%24.0%30.7%
8th30.7%27.4%28.9%28.2%32.5%30.3%
9th32.1%26.5%29.6%27.4%34.9%31.2%
All Grades29.3%28.4%28.9%30.5%31.0%30.8%
Pipestone County11th35.3%16.7%26.6%***
8th33.3%11.4%20.3%***
9th6.1%6.3%6.2%***
All Grades24.2%11.3%17.6%***
Polk County11th18.0%13.6%15.7%20.7%15.9%18.6%
8th24.4%18.9%21.9%27.8%16.3%22.0%
9th16.0%12.2%14.2%24.4%17.4%20.7%
All Grades19.4%14.7%17.1%24.4%16.6%20.6%
Pope County11th20.0%21.9%20.9%25.0%18.4%21.0%
8th12.5%26.8%20.5%21.9%30.2%26.7%
9th32.3%19.6%24.7%24.0%30.0%27.3%
All Grades21.4%22.7%22.1%23.5%26.1%25.0%
Ramsey County11th16.1%14.5%15.3%15.7%16.3%16.0%
8th19.3%20.8%20.0%20.1%19.7%19.9%
9th21.0%19.3%20.2%17.2%15.6%16.5%
All Grades18.9%18.1%18.5%17.6%17.2%17.4%
Red Lake County11th20.0%17.4%18.8%21.7%15.8%19.0%
8th8.3%0.0%4.7%33.3%19.0%26.7%
9th25.9%15.6%20.3%28.6%13.0%20.5%
All Grades18.4%12.2%15.3%27.9%15.9%22.1%
Redwood County11th20.4%10.0%14.7%26.9%11.7%18.8%
8th37.3%19.3%27.8%35.2%21.2%28.5%
9th28.3%20.0%23.7%20.6%15.6%18.2%
All Grades28.8%16.5%22.1%27.7%16.3%22.0%
Renville County11th20.0%16.7%18.5%23.1%10.5%18.4%
8th7.0%24.0%13.2%29.5%26.2%27.8%
9th8.3%17.6%12.9%22.2%18.2%20.4%
All Grades11.0%19.3%14.6%25.0%19.7%22.6%
Rice County11th12.1%17.0%14.4%14.6%10.6%12.7%
8th22.4%14.2%18.3%15.0%11.7%13.4%
9th16.7%15.4%16.0%12.3%13.8%13.0%
All Grades17.5%15.4%16.4%14.1%12.1%13.1%
Rock County11th17.6%17.9%17.8%***
8th15.6%12.5%14.1%***
9th17.5%13.5%15.6%***
All Grades16.8%14.7%15.7%***
Roseau County11th6.9%21.8%14.7%24.4%19.4%21.4%
8th27.7%11.4%17.5%20.8%16.3%18.5%
9th11.9%9.4%10.7%17.6%14.6%16.0%
All Grades13.8%14.1%13.9%20.3%16.5%18.2%
St. Louis County11th15.8%16.0%15.9%17.8%15.9%16.8%
8th21.4%16.5%19.0%23.6%22.0%22.8%
9th17.2%17.0%17.1%24.3%18.9%21.6%
All Grades18.1%16.6%17.4%22.2%19.0%20.6%
Scott County11th9.8%15.0%12.4%11.7%10.9%11.3%
8th15.6%14.5%15.1%12.6%11.7%12.1%
9th13.2%15.2%14.2%13.3%11.9%12.6%
All Grades13.0%14.9%14.0%12.5%11.5%12.0%
Sherburne County11th14.5%12.2%13.3%15.2%14.0%14.6%
8th15.6%13.9%14.7%15.3%14.3%14.8%
9th16.7%14.9%15.8%14.6%13.9%14.2%
All Grades15.7%13.7%14.7%15.1%14.1%14.6%
Sibley County11th27.3%12.2%20.2%28.8%23.3%26.5%
8th30.0%17.0%24.3%18.8%27.3%23.1%
9th32.3%16.0%23.4%15.8%21.6%18.5%
All Grades29.9%15.2%22.7%21.1%24.4%22.6%
Stearns County11th13.6%12.4%13.0%10.8%11.1%10.9%
8th19.6%17.0%18.3%14.1%15.0%14.6%
9th19.1%13.4%16.2%16.0%16.0%16.0%
All Grades17.4%14.2%15.8%13.8%14.3%14.1%
Steele County11th18.7%12.1%15.5%15.2%14.8%15.0%
8th22.8%18.2%20.7%22.2%20.3%21.3%
9th17.6%18.2%17.9%17.4%20.7%19.1%
All Grades19.8%16.3%18.1%18.2%18.7%18.4%
Stevens County11th9.1%11.8%10.3%18.6%9.1%14.5%
8th10.4%6.7%8.6%20.0%11.9%15.6%
9th15.2%18.4%17.1%0.0%9.5%5.3%
All Grades11.7%12.6%12.2%13.4%10.3%11.8%
Swift County11th16.0%10.5%12.7%***
8th8.3%14.7%11.4%***
9th21.4%15.4%18.5%***
All Grades14.6%13.3%13.9%***
Todd County11th20.4%11.7%16.8%20.4%26.8%23.7%
8th26.2%31.6%28.8%27.2%20.6%24.0%
9th22.2%12.5%18.0%24.4%30.0%27.4%
All Grades22.8%19.2%21.2%24.1%25.9%25.0%
Traverse County11th5.6%0.0%3.8%***
8th23.1%13.6%17.1%***
9th18.2%8.3%13.0%***
All Grades14.3%9.5%11.9%***
Wabasha County11th15.7%12.5%14.2%17.9%13.8%16.0%
8th18.9%18.6%18.8%17.9%20.5%19.3%
9th9.6%20.6%14.9%19.2%15.3%17.4%
All Grades14.9%16.6%15.7%18.4%16.8%17.6%
Wadena County11th17.1%8.1%12.9%13.8%14.1%13.9%
8th14.4%17.1%15.6%22.5%20.6%21.5%
9th13.3%13.8%13.5%23.2%16.9%20.4%
All Grades14.8%13.4%14.2%19.8%17.7%18.8%
Waseca County11th17.4%13.6%15.6%13.3%13.8%13.5%
8th19.8%13.6%16.9%26.7%21.0%24.2%
9th12.3%19.8%16.4%16.0%17.0%16.5%
All Grades16.7%15.9%16.3%19.0%17.2%18.1%
Washington County11th10.4%11.2%10.8%10.4%10.9%10.6%
8th11.5%11.7%11.6%10.7%12.1%11.4%
9th13.1%12.4%12.7%13.5%13.7%13.6%
All Grades11.7%11.8%11.7%11.6%12.3%12.0%
Watonwan County11th21.2%21.7%21.5%31.5%14.0%23.1%
8th34.0%6.5%23.5%31.4%22.1%26.1%
9th31.0%19.4%25.6%29.4%30.1%29.8%
All Grades29.6%16.8%23.5%30.6%23.0%26.6%
Wilkin County11th23.3%8.1%16.3%30.8%20.8%27.0%
8th25.6%22.2%24.2%14.7%26.3%20.8%
9th19.6%8.8%15.3%23.7%14.6%18.6%
All Grades22.6%12.2%18.2%23.4%20.0%21.7%
Winona County11th14.4%14.3%14.3%19.9%12.3%16.1%
8th21.1%10.8%16.0%24.2%16.9%20.6%
9th12.4%15.5%14.0%16.8%12.6%14.7%
All Grades16.0%13.6%14.8%20.1%13.8%17.0%
Wright County11th15.5%14.6%15.0%15.0%15.6%15.3%
8th12.4%14.6%13.5%15.4%13.5%14.4%
9th15.9%13.6%14.7%13.8%11.7%12.7%
All Grades14.5%14.3%14.4%14.7%13.5%14.1%
Yellow Medicine County11th16.3%19.5%17.8%18.8%11.8%15.2%
8th14.3%8.0%11.3%33.3%20.5%25.7%
9th27.0%7.0%16.3%26.3%20.0%22.9%
All Grades19.3%11.9%15.7%26.0%17.9%21.5%

About the Indicator:

Note: 5th graders were asked this question in 2013, but not in 2016.

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic experiences, including abuse, neglect and a range of household dysfunction. ACEs put individuals at risk for a number of negative outcomes across the lifespan, including: alcohol, tobacco and other drug use; anxiety; hopelessness; depression; and suicidal ideation and attempts.

One ACE measured by the Minnesota Student Survey is parent or caregiver incarceration. Students were asked if any of their parents or guardians had ever been in jail or prison. Compared to students who do not have a parent or caregiver who is or ever has been in jail or prison, those who do are more likely to report past month use of marijuana (22.3% vs 7.7%), alcohol (29.4% vs 14.3%), and tobacco (23.5% vs 8.8%). For more information on ACEs, see the 2017 ACEs and Substance Use SUMN Fact Sheet.

For a concise explanation of the effects of parental incarceration on students, see the infographic "Academic Outcomes Among Youth with Incarcerated Parents in Minnesota."

Data Source: Minnesota Student Survey (MSS)

Description: The MSS is a confidential and anonymous self-administered survey given to students attending Minnesota public, charter and tribal schools. From 1995 to 2010, the survey was administered to students in 6th, 9th, and 12th grades. New in 2013, the survey was administered to students in 5th, 8th, 9th, and 11th grades. Trend data are now only available for 9th graders, and only for survey questions that did not change. Most schools elect to participate in the survey; in 2013, this included 84% of public schools in Minnesota.

Although the data are not presented here, the survey is also administered to area learning centers, juvenile correction facilities and private schools electing to participate.

Sponsored by: Minnesota Department of Education

Geographic Level: State, Region, and County

Aggregated data at the state and county level do not reveal disparities that may exist within a given geographic area.

Frequency: Data collected and reported every three years

Characteristics: The results of the MSS are also available at a county level. Data Privacy requirements mandate that data is presented in a manner such that no individual student can be identified through the presentation of the results. As part of the Data Privacy practices, the results are also presented in a manner that no individual school district could be identified through the results. Therefore, for counties that have only one school district, the results are not presented. Results are also withheld for counties in which the minimum number for student participation was not met.

The MSS is a “census” of schools, not a sample. The school districts get their own data. Fifth-graders were not asked all substance use questions. Some school districts do not participate, and student participation within the school district can vary widely. These data are self-reported.